Commit e3045d7b authored by Sadman Kazi's avatar Sadman Kazi 🎸

Add first part of chapter 8

parent ac96f94a
Virtual Memory
**Virtual Memory** loads the program's code and data on demand
- Upon reads, load memory from disk
- When memory is unused, write it to disk
- Addresses are logical, not physical
- Runtime address translate (*paging and segmentation*) enable noncontiguous memory
**Implication: A process can successfully run without being fully resident in memory.**
Necessary things:
- next instruction to execute
- next data to be accessed
### How to do it:
1. load some part of the program
2. start executing, til program tries to read or execute something not in RAM
(page fault).
3. Upon page fault, block the process, read in data, resume the process.
**Resident Set**: portion of process that is in main memory.
### Page Faults
How does the OS know when to load data?: CPU triggers a page fault upon access to
nonresident data/code.
Implications on performance:
- Lazy loading is often a win; but
- disks load batches of data faster
Functionality win:
- Can juggle more process in memory at once
- A process can exceed system's RAM size
### Comparison
Real memory: backed by RAM chips
Virtual memory: RAM and swap space
Is virtual memory too slow?
Nope, key win of lazy loading: CPU keeps busy, hence less wasted time. Only a small
part of each process is active at a time (we hope)
**Principal of locality: Stufff you need in the future is close to stuff you needed
in the past**
### Requirements for Virtual memory
- Hardware must support paging and segmentation
- OS support for putting pages on disk and reloading them from disk
### Address Translation in a paging system
![Address Translation](res/address_translation.png)
Problem: page tables will still eat all the RAM! (e.g. 4MB of page tables per process
for 4GB RAM)
Solution: Paging page tables: put the page tables in virtual memory. Must keep
page table entry of the currently-executing page in main memory.
![Two Level hierarchical page table](res/two_level_page_table.png)
![Address Translation in Two-level paging system](res/address_translation_two.png)
### Drawbacks of page table
- Page table size is proportional to the cirtual address space
Alternative: Inverted page table, by using a hash table:
Inverted = index on frame#, not virtual address. Inverted tables grow with the
size of physical memory.
![Inverted page table structure](res/inverted_page_table.png)
### Translation Lookaside Buffer
Each virtual memory reference can cause two physical memory accesses
- One to fetch the page table entry
- One to fetch the data
To get rid of the slowness, use **caches!**
![Use of a translation lookaside buffer](res/TLB.png)
![Operation of TLB](res/TLB_operation.png)
### Page Size
- Smaller page size, less amount of internal fragmentation (you can only allocate
- Smaller page siez, more pages required per process
- More pages per process means larger page tables
- Larger page tablse means large portion of page tables in virtual memory
- Secondary memory is designed to efficiently transfer large blocks of data so a
large page size is better (Disk produces streams)
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